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Website Design For Accessibility: Part 1 | Part 2
Contributor: Andrew Ward

In the second part of this extended two part guide, Andrew Ward continues to guide the web designer through the main issues surrounding web design accessibility.

Style Sheets

Style sheets make life a lot easier for the html author as well as the Web site visitor, so it’s well worth going to the trouble of learning how to use them. The full specifications are hosted by the WorldWideWeb Consortium ( Although the specifications appear complicated, the principle of style sheets is simple enough, and there are many tutorials available on the Web.

The above site is a good explanation of why style sheets are to be preferred over other methods of specifying typography, and especially over the use of FONT FACE. Regrettably, many Web site authors learn by example - simply by inspecting how other sites have been written - and bad practices such as FONTFACE are propagated very quickly by this means.

Within the style sheet specification, styles can be specified in several ways, but by far the easiest is to use a separate file. Just one file can then specify the styles - font and background colours, font styles, sizes and weights - for all the elements such as titles, headings and body text, for all pages on the Web site. So changing the appearance of a Web site, perhaps by enlarging the body text or changing the suggested font for headings, becomes a matter of changing one line in one file. Each html page needs to contain a declaration before it can use a style sheet. Styles are specified within the style sheet file itself, and then referenced by adding the class attribute to html tags where appropriate.

Style sheets solve several problems, but can still be misused. In particular, font sizes may be specified in pixels, point sizes and as percentages of the base font size. Of these three methods, only the third is sensible, because this allows the site visitor to choose the font size that is suitable for them - taking into account the size, quality and resolution of the display, the browser version, the operating system, the hardware platform and any vision problems or preferences they may have.

Readability also depends on the colour scheme. Some users may need to choose different combinations of font and background colour, so unless there is some compelling reason, authors should dictate the colour of neither.

Fluid Pages

With many different display devices in use, as well as personal preferences, the Web site designer should not seek to impose any particular size or shape of the content on the page, as well as the size of type. Instead, pages should be fluid, so that the content is rearranged to suit whatever size and shape browser window the viewer is using.

To achieve this, tables or other formatting techniques such as <div> that are used to lay out the page should be specified in percentages rather than in fixed pixel sizes. There are circumstances in which this is undesirable: it’s normal for news sites to display columns of news text as a fixed size. Otherwise, when viewed at full screen width on a very large screen they would be very difficult to read.

HTML Versions

In general, producing good quality Web pages necessitates writing html code by hand. Web authoring tools do not produce the best html, and do not give the author sufficient freedom to ensure the best viewability. Before doing anything else, the author has first to decide what version of html to use. Like all decisions this will be a compromise, but for most purposes, xhtml 1.0 will be the best choice. This has the advantage of being backwards compatible with html 4.0 and earlier versions, but forwards compatible with new types of Internet browsing device. Full information on xhtml 1.0 can be found at

Broadly speaking, it is very similar to html 4.0 but with two additional requirements. All tag names must be in lower case, and all tags must be terminated, so a line break becomes <br></br> rather than simply <br>.

HTML Validators

One way to find the other differences between html 4.0 and xhtml 1.0 but without having to read the entire specification is to pass a page through an html validator. The best ones to use are at Search the list and find the best tool for your use. The W3C MarkUp Validator will highlight anything in the page that doesn’t comply with the new specification. However, before doing this it’s necessary to change the document type declaration at the beginning of the page to indicate to the validator that it contains xhtml rather than html.

Many Web pages do not include a document type declaration at all. Although these declarations were ignored by earlier browser versions, some browsers today - such as Internet Explorer 6.0 - will change their behaviour according to the declaration. If a Web page doesn’t include this declaration, it may not display as intended. Another validator is at and has the added advantage that it will validate an entire site, not just a single web page.


Fluid pages and relative font sizes also help improve the accessibility of Web pages to users whose vision may be impaired, or who may suffer from some other disability that makes viewing Web pages difficult by conventional means. The World Wide Web Consortium has produced a set of guidelines for site designers that help achieve accessibility for a wide range of visitors, and these are published at Broadly speaking, the guidelines for accessibility are simply good practice for Web site design, with the addition of features that will help visitors that are using text-to-speech converters, such as providing proper alt and title attributes for image tags. However, there is one particular area that is more difficult, and that is the recommendation that tables are avoided for page layout and only used for tables of data.

Obviously, tables do provide a particularly convenient way to produce pages that look nice. Without tables it can be quite difficult to produce presentable pages easily. The use of style sheets in conjunction with the <div> tag does go some way to fulfilling the role that tables play, and there’s some useful guidance on how to use <div> at

Unfortunately, however, most Web design tutorials still rely heavily on the use of tables for positioning and layout. Tables can still be used, and the resultant pages will be usable by text-to-speech converters, as long as the tables are laid out in such a way that they would make sense if read out row by row. An alternative is to produce two entirely different sites, one for visual use and another that’s either text-only, or is specifically suited to text-to-speech converters, but obviously this is an impractically large investment for most site designers. The documentation on the W3C web site provides sufficient information to include control over fine details such as image placing and spacing.

An accessibility testing and rating system is provided by the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST), at

Content Rating

Finally, it’s worth considering obtaining a rating for a Web site. Content control technologies generally default to refusing access to any sites that haven’t been rated. In reality, very few sites do have a rating, so it’s arguable that no one could leave these settings at their default values since the result would be an unusable browser. However, it doesn’t hurt to include a rating, as these are easily obtainable from


Web site design has undergone many changes over the last few years, and only recently have the tools and technologies, as well as the necessary understanding, been in place to allow good practice site design for sites built from html pages and templates. Most old advice should now be discarded, and sites today should follow the latest standards and guidelines, to facilitate access by the widest number of users, both today and in the future.

Website Design For Accessibility: Part 1 | Part 2

Authors background

This article by Andrew Ward first appeared as a guide at Tech Support Alert. In addition to a well respected computer technology bi-monthly newsletter, Ian 'Gizmo' Richards, editor of, provides many useful guides on his site that delve into many technical issues relating to computers.

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